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  • Hardcover
  • 575
  • Crimea The Last Crusade
  • Orlando Figes
  • English
  • 21 October 2019
  • 9780805074604

Orlando Figes Í 9 Read & Download

Read ´ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Í Orlando Figes Orlando Figes Í 9 Read & Download Free read Crimea The Last Crusade From the great storyteller of modern Russian historians Financial Times the definitive account of the forgotten war that shaped the modern ageThe Charge of the Light Brigade Florence Nightingale these are the enduring icons of the Crimean War Less well known is that this savage war 1853 1856 killed almost a million soldiers and countless civilians; that it enmeshed four great empires the British French Turkish and Russian in a battle over religion as well as territory; that it fixed the fault lines between Ru. This book began rather slowly for me but I soon became engrossed in Figes narrative of this somewhat forgotten war which claimed so many lives for so little I have always been fascinated by the Crimean War and this book added to my knowledge as the author had access to sources not previously available to other authors It was a war of incompetent leadership missed opportunities outdated military tactics and rampant disease Much mystiue and legend regarding the war has grown over the years based solely on the suicidal charge of the Light Brigade a perfect example of the miscommunication and lack of military leadership so prevalent in the Crimea The author gives eual attention to the battles of Inkerman the river Alma and the siege of Sevastopol which were of much importance than the infamous charge Highly recommended for the lover of military history

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Read ´ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Í Orlando Figes Orlando Figes Í 9 Read & Download Free read Crimea The Last Crusade Dreams of religious salvation; from the ordinary soldiers and nurses on the battlefields to the women and children in towns under siegeOriginal magisterial alive with voices of the time The Crimean War is a historical tour de force whose depiction of ethnic cleansing and the West's relations with the Muslim world resonates with contemporary overtones At once a rigorous original study and a sweeping panoramic narrative The Crimean War is the definitive account of the war that mapped the terrain for today's wor. A solid well written general history of the Crimean WarFiges describes the history of the war from all sides and his coverage of the war s origins is particularly strong Although many of the wars after the Napoleonic era seemed like minor affairs Figes stresses that the Crimean War was most definitely not and he rams home the huge amount of casualties among combatants and civilians how primitive the Russian war effort could be and how amateurish the British could be Figes is not terribly sympathetic to Lord RaglanFiges also ably discusses the war s conseuences describing how it disrupted the post Napoleonic Concert of Europe how Sardinia s role contributed to France s decision to intervene in Italy and how postwar Russia turned to domestic reform and became even suspicious of western Europe Figes also emphasizes the war s status as the first to be brought about by the pressure of the press and by public opinion Some and better maps would have helped though and Figes coverage of events in the Baltic Anatolia and the Caucasus might strike some as relatively sparse Also Figes writes that the Austro Hungarians were in constant retreat in the Balkans they were The military operations take up only about a third of the narrative and Figes doesn t always provide much analysis or explanation here Figes also writes that the war was the first total war but this argument seems underdeveloped He also argues that millet system contributed to the Ottomans decline although the replacement of the millet system with nationalism seems plausible Elsewhere Figes writes that the war was primarily religious but the rhetoric of the time wasn t terribly uniue and it does seem like empire and the Eastern uestion were significant He also argues that public opinion was a major factor in the war s origins which might be true for Britain probably less so in FranceA balanced insightful and engaging history

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Read ´ E-book, or Kindle E-pub Í Orlando Figes Orlando Figes Í 9 Read & Download Free read Crimea The Last Crusade Ssia and the West; that it set in motion the conflicts that would dominate the century to comeIn this masterly history Orlando Figes reconstructs the first full conflagration of modernity a global industrialized struggle fought with unusual ferocity and incompetence Drawing on untapped Russian and Ottoman as well as European sources Figes vividly depicts the world at war from the palaces of St Petersburg to the holy sites of Jerusalem; from the young Tolstoy reporting in Sevastopol to Tsar Nicolas haunted by. It s Good Friday April 10 1846 Jerusalem is packed with pilgrims on an Easter weekend that happened to fall on the same date in both the Latin and Orthodox calendars The mood is tense The two religious communities had been arguing over who has the right to be first to carry out the rituals at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre one of the holiest places in Christendom standing on the spot where Jesus is said to have been crucifiedThat Friday was to be anything but good The Catholics arrived only to find that the Greeks were there first A fight broke out priest against priest soon to be joined by monks and pilgrims from the respective camps People fought not just with fists but anything they could get a hold of crucifixes candlesticks chalices lamps and incense burners Wood was torn from the sacred shrines and used as clubs Knives and pistols were smuggled into the church By the time the Mehemet Pasha the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem had restored order forty people lay deadThis dreadful incident all in the name of a shared belief marks the departure for Orlando Figes Crimea the Last Crusade the first full account of the Crimean War that I have read I know Figes well one of the best specialists on Russian history in the English speaking world the author of the superlative A People s Tragedy the Russian Revolution 1891 1924 Although his history of the Crimean War lacks the range and power of the latter book he has done a tremendous service placing the conflict firmly within the context of the Eastern uestion the issues arising from the continuing decline of the Ottoman Empire and European power politics as a wholeI m not completely convinced by his crusading hook I have to say Yes the war did begin with a conflict over who had the best claim to protect the holy places within the Turkish empire the Catholic French or the Orthodox Russians and again yes Tsar Nicholas I was strong in his conviction that he was a defender of the true faith a defender of the Orthodox faithful in all the Turkish lands But almost immediately when the fighting started the religious issue was obscured by general issues arising from European geopolitics Besides a war which involved Turkish Muslims British Protestants and French Catholics on one side against Orthodox Russians on the other does not look much like a crusade The Tsar may have begun with crusading thoughts but before his death in March 1855 he was preoccupied by the decline in Russian powerFiges greatest service has been to rescue the conflict from fragmentation and partiality the preserve at best of amateur military historians interested in the clash of arms than the reason for the clash of arms The war may have been tragic and unnecessary but it still marks and important stage in the development of European politics and diplomacy It marks the end of the Concert of Europe the arrangement between the powers to police the settlement of 1815 emerging from the Napoleonic Wars It marks the break in the informal alliance between Russia and Austria that helped preserved that settlement in aspic allowing for the rise of new nations like Italy and Germany So in all it was so much than the Charge of the Light Brigade the Thin Red Line and the Lady with the LampSo far as the conflict itself is concerned there was really no need as the author shows for the Crimean War ever to have been the Crimean War There was no need in other words for the landing on the Crimean peninsula followed by the lengthy and bloody siege of the port of Sevastopol for the simple reason that the Russians had suffered a serious tactical and strategic reverse in early 1854They had previously occupied the semi autonomous Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and Walachia now Romania with a view to pushing south of the Danube in a march on Constantinople But unexpectedly tough resistance by the Turks at the fortress of Silistria prevented any further advance When this was coupled with the landings of the French and British at Varna in what is now Bulgaria and the threat of Austrian intervention the Russians had no choice but to withdraw from the occupied provinces But the blood was up the war had to run its course Russia had to be humbled Sevastopol had to fallCrimea marks a vital stage in the development of warfare combining elements of the old and the new combining the Napoleonic Wars at one remove and the First World War at the other It was the last of the old wars if you like containing the seeds of the new Although it may come as a surprise the campaign on the Crimea itself and its eventual outcome was far a French than a British affair The French contributed many troops It was their capture of the Malakhov redoubt in September 1855 that led to the fall of Sevastopol and the end of the warDiplomatically their role was also decisive Palmerston who succeeded the far less militant Aberdeen as prime minister in 1855 rather took on the role of Cato the Elder Cartago delenda est was his war cry His Carthage was Russia which he intended to remove forever as a threat to the British Empire If he had had his way the Russian borders would have returned to those of 1709 before Peter the Great s victory over the Swedes at Poltava The press was behind his war drive the people were behind him even the ueen was behind him the French were not He did not have his way because Napoleon III had other visions Britain may have had the fleet but the French had the armyThis is a good story an important story told with verve and style told in a wholly compelling fashion with plenty of balance and nuance placing the Crimean War in proper context The author is to be commended for his industry and his scholarship for writing a first class account of an important passage in European history